You are currently viewing The Digital Silk Road

The Digital Silk Road

  • Post author:
  • Post category:elibrary

eLibrary: The Digital Silk Road. Version 1.0 (April 2020)

Richard T. Griffiths (Leiden University)

This is the latest version of an electronic library of resources on the cyberspace dimension of China’s BRI. It is intended to offer support to teachers and students studying the BRI as part of their undergraduate education and to act as a springboard to individual projects. It defines the BRI countries as those listed in the original scheme by the National Development and Reform Commission (i.e. everything from mainland Asia to Central and Eastern Europe but, excepting Egypt, excluding Africa). Any suggestions will be welcome.

Statistics and Data

ITU Statistics. Country data for individual use of computers, mobile phones and broadband subscription and more are here

Regional Internet Registries Statistics provides ASN counts amazing catalogue of projects


Amighini, A. (ed.) (2019) China’s Race to Global Technology Leadership, ISPI, Milan, May 2019.

Bavaresco, M. (2018) ‘Tracking the Future: Digital Silk Road forging ahead’, Insight, 03/3018

NEW Carr, E. (2020) Is China Threatening America’s Dominance In The Digital Space?, Forbes, June, 2020

Castro, D., McLaughlin, M.  and  Chivot, E. (2019) Who Is Winning the AI Race: China, the EU or the United States? Centre for Data Innovation, 19.8.2019

Chan, J.H. (2019) All may not be smooth along China’s Digital Silk Road, The Interpreter, 20.8.2019

Chipman, R. (2019) China’s long and winding Digital Silk Road, IISS, Blog, 25.1.2019

Cheney, C. (2019) China’s Digital Silk Road: Strategic Technological Competition and Exporting Political Illiberalism Pacific Forum issues and Insights, Working Paper 19, 8, 1.8.2019

Cowie, J. (2019) Mapping the Digital Silk Road, P/P Presentation

NEW Dekker, B., Okano-Heijmans, M. and Zhang, E.S. (2020) Unpacking China’s

Digital Silk Road, Clingendael Report, July 2020

Garcia, A. (2019) China embarks on Digital Silk Road, Invesco Insights,15.5.2019

Glosserman, B. (2020) Setting ‘simple’ standards is critical diplomacy, The Japan Times, 8.4.2020

Goodman, M.P. (2019) China’s Digital Silk Road, CSIS Conference Transcript, 11.2.2019

Gong, S., Gu, J. and Teng, F. (2019) The impact of the Belt and Road Initiative investment in digital connectivity and information and communication technologies on achieving the SDGs. K4D Emerging Issues Report.

Hemmings, J. and Cha, P. (2020) The Hidden Dangers of China’s Digital Silk Road, The National Interest, 11.3.2020

Hernandez, K. (2019) Achieving complex development goals along the digital Silk Road, K4D Emerging Issues Report, 29.3.2019

Jüris, F. (2020) Handing over Infrastructure for China’s Strategic Objectives: ‘Arctic Connect’ and the Digital Silk Road in the Arctic, Sinopsis, Policy Brief, 7.3.2020

Kantha, A.K. (2020) China’s Digital Silk Road: Implications for India, ISAS Papers, 31.1.2020

Kaska, K., Beckvard, H. and Minárik. T (2019) Huawei, 5G and China as a Security Threat, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, 28.3.2019

Kelnar, K. (2018) From silk threads to fiber optics: The rise of China’s digital silk road, ORF Resina Debates, 8.8.2018

Kitson, A and Liew, K (2019) ‘China Doubles Down on Its Digital Silk Road’, Reconnecting Asia, 14.11.2019

Langendorf, M (2019) Digital stability: How technology can empower future generations in the Middle East, ECFR Policy Brief, 24.3.2020

Lee, J. (2020) How best to counter China’s ‘Belt and Road’ plan, The Hill, 25.2.2020

Lele, A. and Roy, K. (2019) Analysing China’s Digital And Space Belt And Road Initiative, IDSA Occasional Paper, 54, November 2019

Lindsay, J.R. (2015) ‘The Impact of China on Cybersecurity Fiction and Friction’, International Security, 39, 3 (Winter 2014/15), 7–47.

Mohanty, A. (2019) ‘‘Outlawed’ Digital Silk Road’, Vivekananda International Foundation, 13.2.2019

Okano-Heijmans, M. (2019) How to strengthen Europe’s Policy Brief agenda on digital connectivity, Clingendael Policy Brief,

K. Ono, K. et al (2007) Digital Silk Road, P/P Presentation APAN24, X’ian (cultural hetitage project)

Patrick , S.M. (2018) ‘Belt and Router: China Aims for Tighter Internet Controls with Digital Silk Road’, CFR BlogPost, 2.7.2018

Prasso, S. (2019) ‘China’s Digital Silk Road Is Looking More Like an Iron Curtain’ Bloomberg Businessweek, 10.1.2019

Rühlig, T. and Björk, M. (2020) What to Make of the Huawei Debate? 5G Network Security and Technology Dependency in Europe, Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Worling paper, 1/2020

Rühlig, T.N. (2020) Technical standardisation, China and the future international order A European perspective, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung European Union, 2020

Roháč, D. (2019) ‘The Digital Silk Road’, ASPEN Review, 02/2019

Shen, H. (2018) Building a Digital Silk Road? Situating the Internet in China’s Belt and Road Initiative, International Journal of Communication 12(2018), 2683–2701

Shi-Kupfer, K. and Ohlberg, M. (2019) CHINA’S DIGITAL RISE. Challenges for Europe, MERICS Papers on China 7, April 2019

Stevens, C. (2020) ‘Hi-tech cooperation between #China and #EU has huge potential’ The EU Reporter, 9.2.2020

Sun, Y (2018) The Reasons Why China’s OBOR Initiative Goes Digital, MA Thesis, Aalborg University and University of International Relations,

Swaminathan, A. (2019) Digital silk road: How China is creating a new global data highway, Yahoo Finance, 1.10.2019

Stac, G. (2018) The Invisible Silk Road: Enter the Digital Dragon, European Institute for Asian Studies

Trillio, P. (2018) The Geopolitics of G5, Eurasia group White Paper, 15.11.2018

NEW Triolo, P. and Greene, R. (2020) Will China control the global internet via its Digital Silk Road? SupChina, 8.5.2020

UNESCAP (2019) The Operation of Cross-Border Terrestrial Fibre-Optic Networks in Asia and the Pacific, 2019

UNESCAP (2017) A Study of ICT Connectivity for the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): Enhancing the Collaboration in China-Central Asia Corridor, Working Paper by the Information and Communications Technology and Disaster Risk Reduction Division

UNESCAP (2017) Promoting investment in the Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway (AP-IS), 18.4.2017

Wheeler, A. (2020) China’s Digital Silk Road (DSR): the new frontier in the Digital Arms Race?, Silk Road Briefing, 19.2.2020

Wu, W (2017) ‘China’s ‘Digital Silk Road’: Pitfalls Among High Hopes’, The Diplomat, 3.11.2017