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The Maritime Silk Road

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eLibrary: The Maritime Silk Road

Version 2.0 (August 2020)

Richard T. Griffiths (Leiden University)

This is the latest version of an electronic library of resources on the maritime aspects of the BRI. It is intended to offer support to teachers and students studying the BRI as part of their undergraduate education and to act as a springboard to individual projects. It defines the BRI countries as those listed in the original scheme by the National Development and Reform Commission (i.e. everything from mainland Asia to Central and Eastern Europe but, excepting Egypt, excluding Africa). Any suggestions will be welcome.



1994 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea


10/2013 Xi Jinping Speech to Indonesian parliament launching maritime silk road. Summary by Asean-China Centre. Also whole speech in Video

05/2014 Xi Jinping in Shanghai launching the ‘Asian dream’. Summary by MFA of PRC

03/2015 Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road

03/2017 Steadily Promote Cooperation among South China Sea Coastal States. Speech by Vice Foreign Minister Liu Zhenmin at the session on the South China Sea of the Bo’ao Forum for Asia Annual Meeting, 25.3.2017 Boao, Hainan

06/2017 Vision of Maritime Cooperation in Building “Belt and Road” (English and Chinese)


Drewry Webinars. Drewry is a foremost analyst of ports and terminals. Each of its publications costs close to $2,000. However, the main findings are reported in short webinars, available on-line, dating back to 2016

Maritime Silk Road Trade Index Run by the Ningbo Shipping Exchange and publishes a monthly composite index of trade along the BRI countries

Polar and Ocean Portal. Note very active but some nice materials in English. The Chinese language version is really very good. ALSO

The Leading Maritime Capitals Of The World 2017, Menon Publication No. 28/2017. Composite Index ranking top fifteen ports by 47 variables.

UNCTAD Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (2004-2018) Composite Index based on five variables. Described in Dutch entry to Wikipedia


BIMCO (Baltic and International Maritime Council) Bulletin. Access to Biannual review (2015-present)

BRS (Barry Rogliano Salles) Review of Shipbuilding. Downloads of this annual report (2000-present)

Danish Ship Finance, Shipping Market Review, Downloads of Biannual review (2004-present)

Dry Cargo international Only online subscription

International Association of Ports and Harbors, Ports and Harbors. Review published every two months available free (2013-2018), most recent reviews by subscription

GIIGNL (International Group of Liquefied natural Gas Importers) The LNG Industry. Downloads of this annual report (2005-2015) their annual report (2015- present) as well as other reports through searchable database.

IGU (International Gas Union) World LNG Report. Downloads of this annual report (since 2011) and other publications.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, World Port Index. Annual Reports (- present)

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) Review of Maritime Transport, Downloads of this annual report from 1968-present)


African Development Bank (2017) Asia Africa Growth Corridor:Partnership for Sustainable and Innovative Development, African Development Bank Meeting, Ahmedabad, 22-26 May, 2017

ASEAN (2019) ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific, June 2019

Blanchard, J-M F. (2019) Problematic Prognostications about China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative (MSRI): Lessons from Africa and the Middle East, Journal of Contemporary China, 29,122, 159-

NEW Blanchette, J., Hillman, J.E., McCalpin, M. and Qiu, M. (2020) Hidden Harbors

China’s State-backed Shipping Industry, CSIS Brief, July 2020

NEW Dalhousie University (2019) Spotlight on Safety: Why Accidents are often not Accidental, July 2019

Damuri, Y.R. et al, (2014) A Maritime Silk Road and Indonesia’s Perspective of Maritime State, CSIS Working Paper, December 2014.

Duchâtel, M and Duplaix, A.S., (2018) Blue China: Navigating the Maritime Silk Road to Europe, ECFR, April, 2018

Duchâtel, M. (ed.) (2019) China’s Port Investment. The flag behind the trade. China Trends, June 2019

Duquennoy, A. and Zielonka, R., (2015) Bridging Asia and Europe Through Maritime Connectivity, EAIS, Brussels, March, 2015

Ecscobar, P. (2019) Welcome to the Indo-Russia maritime Silk Road, Asia Times, 5.9.2019

Feng, A and Deng, Y. (2018) ‘The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road: A Perspective from China on a Network of Free Trade Areas’ in The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road Islands Economic Cooperation Forum. Annual Report on Global Islands, 2018, 205-226.

Financial Times. How China rules the waves. 12.1.2017 (Much quoted in October 2019 US Congress hearings on maritime Silk Road (see below)

Funaiole, M.P. and Hillman, J.E. (2018) China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative: Economic Drivers and Challenges, CSIS Briefs,2.4.2018

Ghiasy, R., Su, F. and Saalman, L. (2018) The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road: Security implications and ways forward for the European Union, SIPRI, September 2018.

Grare, F. (2018) Along the road Gwadar and China’s power projection, EUISS Brief, July 2018

Green, M.J. (2018) China’s Maritime Silk Road: Strategic and Economic Implications for the

Indo-Pacific Region, CSIS, April 2018

Hannah, H.I. (2019) ‘The Great Game Moves to Sea: Tripolar Competition in the Indian Ocean RegionWar on the Rocks, 1.4.2019.

NEW Haralambides, H. and Mark, O. (2020 The Belt and Road Initiative: Impacts on Global Maritime Trade Flows, ITF Round Table, 178. June 2020.

Hillman, J. (2018) Game of Loans How China Bought Hambantota, CSIS Briefs, March 2018.

Hillman, J. (2019) China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative: Implications for the Global Maritime Supply Chain, Congressional Testimony, 17 October 2019 (Video released by CSIS)

Huo, W., Zhang, W. and Chen, P.S-L. (2018) ‘Recent development of Chinese port

cooperation strategies’, Research in Transportation Business & Management, 26 (2018) 67–75

Hussain, S. (2018) Politic-Economic Significance of Gwadar Port: Implications for Regional Integration, PhD Thesis, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan, June 2018.

Husseinbor, M.H. (2016) ‘Chabahar and Gwadar Agreements and Rivalry among Competitors in Baluchistan Region’, Journal for Iranian Studies, 1, 1, 82-99, December 2016.

International Transport Forum (2018) The Impact of Alliances in Container Shipping,

Iyer, G. (2019) Mega-Ships in the Indian Ocean: Evaluating the Impact and Exploring Littoral Cooperation, ORF Occassional 204, July 2019

Jash, A. (2017) China’s “Blue Partnership” through the Maritime Silk Road, National maritime foundation,

Kahandawaarachchi, T. (2015) Politics of ports China’s investments in Pakistan, Sri Lanka & Bangladesh. MA Thesis, Univ of Washington, 2015

Kapila, S. (2018) ‘China’s Maritime Silk Road Strategically Impacts Indo-Pacific Security – Analysis’, Eurasian Review, 9 September 2018

Kanwal, G. (2018) Pakistan’s Gwadar Port A New Naval Base in China’s String of Pearls in the Indo-Pacific, PCSIS Briefs, April 2018

Karim, M.A. (2015) ‘China’s Proposed Maritime Silk Road: Challenges and Opportunities with Special Reference to the Bay of Bengal Region’, Pacific Focus, 30, 3, December 2015, 297-319.

Khan, S.A. (2013) ‘Geo-Economic Imperatives of Gwadar Sea Port and Kashgar Economic Zone for Pakistan and China’, IPRI Journal, 13, 2, 87-100, Summer 2013

Klemesits, P. (2017) China and the 21st Century New Maritime Silk Road, Belt and Road Centre Hungary, October 2017.

Koboević, Z., Kurtela, Ž. And Vujičić, S. (2018) The Maritime Silk Road and China’s Belt

and Road Initiative, Conference Proceedings ????, 2018.

Kosandi M. China’s Maritime Silk Road and Indonesia’s Maritime Nexus Policies: Towards Policy Convergence? Conference Paper, ????,

Kulshrestha, S. (2017) ‘Three Ports Under China’s Gaze’. IndraStra Global, 8, 1-7.

Liu, Q. AND Ke, L. (2018) One-Belt-One-Road policy implication on logistics route competition: Case study of China-Germany trade, Hamburg, 2018.

McCarron, B. (2018) Climate Costs for Asia Pacific Ports, Asia Research and Engagement

Monteiro, A. (2020) ‘Strategic Partnership, Arctic-Style: How Russia and China Play the Game’, Modern Diplomacy, 14.3.2020

Moscato, D. (2018) The Polar Silk Road in the Popular Press: Global Media Framing

of China’s 2018 Arctic Policy White Paper, Arctic Yearbook

Mou, N. et al (2018) ‘Spatial Pattern and Regional Relevance Analysis of the Maritime Silk Road Shipping Network’, Sustainability, 10, 4

Neo, C. (2013) China’s Gwadar Pearl. The port acquisition and implications for India, ISAS Brief No. 288, July 2013

Nouwens, V. (2019) China’s 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. Implications for the UK, RUSI Occasional Papers, February, 2019

NEW Nouwens, V. (2020) ‘ Who Guards The ‘Maritime Silk Road’? War on the Rocks, Commentary, June 2020

Patrick, A. (2017) China – Sri Lanka Strategic Hambantota Port Deal, National Maritime Foundation, April 2017

Plataniotis, P. (2018?) An Assessment of the Future Competitiveness of Port of Piraeus. MA Thesis, Erasmus University, Rotterdam,

Putten F-P. van der and Meijnders, M. (2015) China, Europe and the Maritime Silk Road, Clingendael, March, 2015

Putten F-P. van der (2014) Chinese Investment in the Port of Piraeus, Greece: The Relevance for the EU and the Netherlands, Clingendael, February, 2014

Putten F-P. van der (ed) (2016) The Geopolitical Relevance of Piraeus and China’s New

Silk Road for Southeast Europe and Turkey, Clingendael, December, 2016

Putten, F-P van der (2019) European seaports and Chinese strategic influence The relevance of the Maritime Silk Road for the Netherlands, Clingendael, December 2019

Roell, P., (2016) China’s Maritime Silk Road – An Ambitious Undertaking, ISPSW Strategy Series 423, May 2016

Rosolini, M. (2016) The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, MA Thesis, Universita CaFroscani, Venice, 2016

Russel, D.R. and Berger, B. (2019) Navigating the Belt and Road Initiative, Asia Society Policy Institiute, Report, June 2019

Sardana, M.M.K. (nd., post 2016) Strategic Competition in South Asia. Gwadar and Chabahar. ISID Discussion Note,

Schinas, O and Westarp A.G. von, (2017) ‘Assessing the impact of the maritime silk road’, Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science, 2, 3, 186-195 September 2017.

Simon, B. (2020) Can the New Silk Road compete with the Maritime Silk Road?,

American Shipper, 10.1.2020

NEW Smotrytska, M (2020) ‘The implementation of the BRI project at sea: South

Maritime and Arctic Silk Roads’, Modern Diplomacy, July 2020

Sun, T and Payette, A. (2017) China’s Two Ocean Strategy: Controlling waterways and the new silk road, Asia Focus, 31.5.2017

Sun, Y. (2019?) The Northern Sea Route: The Myth of Sino-Russian Cooperation,


Suri, G. (2016) China’s 21 Century Maritime Silk Road Old String with New Pearls?, VIF Occasional Paper, March 2016

Szechenyi, N. (ed) (2018) China’s Maritime Silk Road. Strategic and Economic

Implications for the Indo-Pacific Region, CSIS, Washington DC.

Szechenyi, N. and Hosoya, Y (2019) Working Toward a Free and Open Indo-Pacific, Alliance Policy coordination Brief, 10 October 2019

Tanoli, J.R. (2016) Comparative Analysis of Gwadar and Chabahar: The Two Rival Ports, CSCR Research Brief, 2016

Thorne, D and Spevack, B, (2017) Harboured Ambitions. How China’s Port Investments are Strategically Reshaping the Indo-Pacific

Tonchev, P. (2018) Along the road Sri Lanka’s tale of two ports, EUISS Briefs, 4, 2018

Tzogopoulos, G.N. (2019) Chinese Investments in Gwadar and Piraeus, ELIAMEP Working Paper, 104, March 2019.

UNWTO, The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road – Tourism Opportunities and Impacts, February, 2019.

US Congress (2018) U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Annual Report to Congress, November 2018, Washington DC (see pages 259-303)

US Department of Defense (2018) Assessment on United States Defense Implications of China’s Expanding Global Access, 14.1.2019

US House of Representatives, (2019) Hearing. China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative:

Implications for the Global Maritime Supply Chain. 17 October 2019.

Wang, L. et al (2019) ‘Investment Strategy of Chinese Terminal Operators along the “21st-Century Maritime Silk Road”’, Sustainability, 11, 2019

Wen, G. (2018) Analysis of Competitive Position of Chinese Ports as Results of Non- proximity Collaboration in the OBOR Period, MSc Thesis Erasmus University, Rotterdam

Xu, S. (2018) China’s Connectivity Projects with Pakistan and Sri Lanka: A Review of the CPEC Projects and Hambantota Port,National University Singapore, December 2018