eLibrary: Health Silk Road
Version 2.0 (May 2021)
Anabela Santiago (University of Aveiro) Richard T. Griffiths (Leiden University)
This is the latest version of an electronic library of resources on the public health dimension of China’s BRI. The Library is intended to offer support to teachers and students studying the BRI as part of their undergraduate education and to act as a springboard to individual projects. It defines the BRI countries as those listed in the original scheme by the National Development and Reform Commission (i.e. everything from mainland Asia to Central and Eastern Europe but, excepting Egypt, excluding Africa). Any suggestions will be welcome, please add in the comments.
8/2017 Beijing Communiqué of The Belt and Road Health Cooperation & Health Silk Road
8/2017 WHO Director-General, Dr Tedros’s speech at the Belt and Road Forum for Health Cooperation: Towards a Health Silk Road
2/2020-Present US Government, Foreign Assistance for Coronavirus (COVID-19). Collection of over 40 press releases
2/2020-Present European Commission, EU global response to COVID-19. Collection of materials
4/2020 World Bank/IMF Spring Meetings 2020: Development Committee Communiqué, Press release, 17.4.2020.
6/2020 Joint Statement of the High-level Video Conference on Belt and Road International Cooperation: Combating COVID-19 with Solidarity.
Worldometer. Provides daily updates of the progress of the COVID-pandemic
Pandemics in the Past (very partial selective list)
Milan Brahmbhatt Arindam Dutta (2008) On SARS Type Economic Effects during Infectious Disease Outbreaks, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 4466.
NEW Dasgupta, S and Crunkhorn, R. (2020) ‘A History of pandemics over the ages and the human cost’, The Physician, 6, 2
NEW Frankema, E. and Tworek, H. (2020) ‘Pandemics that changed the world: historical reflections on COVID-19’, Journal of Global History, 6.11.2020
Frith, J. (2012) The History of Plague – Part 1. The Three Great Pandemics, Journal of Military and Veteran’s Health, 20. 2, 2012
Garrett, T.A. (2017) Economic Effects of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Implications for a Modern-day Pandemic, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Hirshleifer, J. (1966) Disaster and Recovery. The Black Death in Western Europe. RAND Corp.
Humerovic, D, (2019) ‘Brief History of Pandemics’ Psychiatry of Pandemics
Independent Commission on Multilateralism (2017) G l o b a l P a n d e m i c s a n d G l o b a l P u b l i c H e a l t h
lePan, N. (2020) Visualizing the History of Pandemics, Visual Capitalist, 14.3.2020
Mark Koyama, Remi Jedwab and Noel Johnson (2019) Pandemics, Places, and Populations: Evidence from the Black Death, CEPR Discussion paper DP13523
Petersen E. e,a, (2020) ‘Comparing SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and influenza pandemics’, The Lancet, 3.7.2020
NEW Piret, J, and Boivin, G. (2021) ‘Pandemics Throughout History’, Frontiers in Microbiology, 15.1.2021
Nanshan Zhong, and Guangqiao Zeng, (2006) ‘What we have learnt from SARS epidemics in China?’ British Medical Journal, 19.8.2006
Samal, J. (2014) ‘A Historical Exploration of Pandemics of Some Selected Diseases in the World’, International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 4, 2, 2014,
Tognotti, E. (2013) ‘Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A’, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19, 2, 2013.
NOTE: The Leiden University database Resources on Coronavirus with its open resources dataset
NEW Akhaldi, M e.a. (2021) ‘Rethinking and strengthening the Global Health Diplomacy through triangulated nexus between policy makers, scientists and the community in light of COVID-19 global crisis’ Global Health Research and Policy, 6, 12.
NEW AlTakarli, N.S. (2020) China’s Response to the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Model for Epidemic Preparedness and Management, Dubai Medical Journal, 3,2,
NEW Baig, M.A.A. (2021) ‘Global Health & Health Silk Road: The Other Side Of Picture’, Modern Diplomacy, 6.6.2021
Beg, Z. (2020) ‘“The Health Silk Road”: Implications for the EU under Covid-19’, EIAS, 29.4.2020
Bing, N.C. (2020) ‘COVID-19 speeds up China’s ‘Health Silk Road’, East Asia Forum, 26.5.2020
Buckley, P.J. (2020) ‘China’s Belt and Road Initiative and the COVID-19 crisis’, Journal of International Business Policy, 3, 311–314.
NEW Cao, J. (2020) “Toward a Health Silk Road, China’s Proposal for Global Health Cooperation, China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies, 6, 1, 19–35.
NEW Chen, A. and Molter, V. (2021) ‘Mask Diplomacy: Chinese Narratives in the COVID Era’ Stanford All Cyber News, 16.6.2020
Chen, C. e.a (2019) ‘Combating infectious disease epidemics through China’s Belt and Road Initiative’, PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(4): e0007107. 18.4.2019
NEW Cheng, Y. & Cheng, F. (2019) China’s unique role in the ﬁeld of global health. Global Health Journal. Vol. 3, Issue 4. Pp. 98-101.
NEW Chow-Bing, N (2020)What’s behind China’s controversial Health Silk Road efforts. CNA.
NEW Chow-Bing, N. COVID-19, Belt and Road Initiative and the Health Silk Road: Implications for Southeast Asia, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, October 2020
Cimmino, J., Kroenig, M. and Pavel, B (2020) ‘Taking stock: Where are geopolitics headed in the COVID-19 era?’, Atlantic Council, 1/6.2020
NEW Dinko, D.H. (2021) ‘China’s ‘mask diplomacy’ wins influence across Africa, during and after the pandemic’ The Conversation, 10.3.2021
Editorial (2017) ‘Facing forwards along the Health Silk Road’, The Lancet, 5, 10, 2017
Economics, I. & O. (2017). Belt and Road Economic Health Index Navigating complexity by the stars. Report, (July 2017).
Escobar, P. (2020) ‘China rolls out the Health Silk Road’, Asia Times, 2.4.2020.
NEW EuBulletin (2021) ‘Vaccine Diplomacy: Soft Power Lessons from China and Russia?’ EuBulletin, 10.5.2021
European Parliament Research Service (2020) Economic impact of epidemics and pandemics, 26.2.2020
Fallon, T. (2020) ‘China, Italy, and Coronavirus: Geopolitics and Propaganda’ The Diplomat, 20.3.2020
NEW Felter, C. (2021) A Guide to Global COVID-19 Vaccine Efforts, CFR 27.4.2021. A good guide through the basics
Fornado, A. (2020) ‘What is the Health Silk Road’ (some good embedded links)
NEW Fuchs, A. (2020) Mask wars: China’s exports of medical goods in times of COVID-19, cege Discussion Papers, No. 398
NEW Fuchs, A. e.a. (2021) ‘China sent masks, gloves and gowns to many U.S. states. Here’s who benefited’ Washington Post, 29.1.2021
NEW Gauttam, P., Singh, B and Kaur, J. (2020) ‘COVID-19 and Chinese Global Health Diplomacy: Geopolitical Opportunity for China’s Hegemony?’ Millennial Asia, 12.20.2020
NEW Graaf, B de (2020) ‘Taming Pandemics in International Relations Why Do States Cooperate in Transboundary Crises? An Applied History Perspective’, Journal of Applied History, 2, 1-2, 36-61.
NEW Hotez, P. (2021) Preventing the Next Pandemic: Vaccine Diplomacy in a Time of Anti-Science. For a review in The Lancet see here
Hu, R., Liu, R. and Hu, N. (2017). ‘China’s Belt and Road Initiative from a global health perspective’, The Lancet Global Health. 5,752-753
NEW Katz, R. e.a. (20i1) ‘Defining Health Diplomacy: Changing Demands in the Era of Globalization’ The Milbank Quarterly,, 89, 3, 503-523
Kickbusch, I. e.a. (2018) ‘Interview: The New Silk Road—Health as Soft Power’. OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology, 22, 6, 2018.
NEW Kickbusch, I. e.a. (2021) A Guide to Global Health Diplomacy. Better health – improved global solidarity – more equity Global Health Centre
NEW Kobierecka, A and Kobierecka, M.M. (2021) ‘Coronavirus diplomacy: Chinese medical assistance and its diplomatic implications’, International Politics, 8.3.2021
NEW Kowalski, B. (2021) ‘China’s Mask Diplomacy in Europe: Seeking Foreign Gratitude and Domestic Stability’, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 8.4.2021
The Lancet. (2016). The best science for achieving Healthy China 2030. The Lancet, 388, p. 1851.
Lee T.K. (1996) ‘Silk road: opportunities for foreign-owned health care clinics in China’, Australian Health Review, 19, 2, 1996, 94-104.
NEW Li, L e.a. (2021) ‘US–China health exchange and collaboration following COVID-19’, The Lancet, 8.4.2021
Loayza, N. (2020) ‘Aid effectiveness during the COVID-19 pandemic: This time it must be better’, World Bank Blogs, 6.5.2020
NEW Mardell, J (2020) China’s “Health Silk Road”: Adapting the BRI to a pandemic-era world, MERICS Short Analysis, 25.11.2020
McDade, K.K. and Mao, W. (2020) ‘Making sense of estimates of health aid from China, British Medical Journal, 5, 2, 2020
NEW Mekelberg. Y. (2021).Why Covid-19 vaccine diplomacy is both moral and expedient. TRENDS- Global Barometer
NEW Micah AE, Zhao Y, Chen CS, et al. (2019) Tracking development assistance for health from China, 2007–2017. BMJ Global Health, 4, 5, 2019
Mulakala,A. and Ji, H. (2020) ‘Covid-19 and China’s soft power ambitions’, DevPolicyBog, 24.4.2020
Pal, D. and Bhatia, R. (2020) The BRI in Post-Coronavirus South Asia, Carnegie India, May 2020
NEW Pannu, J. and Barry, M. (2021) ‘The state inoculates: vaccines as soft power’, The Lancet, 9.6.
NEW Rudolf, M (2021) China’s Health Diplomacy during Covid-19 The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in Action, SWP Comment, January 2021
Schellekens, P. and Sourrouille, D. (2020) COVID-19 Mortality in Rich and Poor Countries. A Tale of Two Pandemics? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 9260.
NEW Sec, G. and Poggetti, L. (2021) Beijings vaccine diplomacy bears fruit in Central and Eastern Europe, MERICS, 24.2.2021
Su, M. e.a. (2019) ‘Urban ecosystem health evaluation for typical Chinese cities along the Belt and Road’, Ecological Indicators. 101. 572-582. 10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.01.070. (NO PUBLIC ACCESS)
Tambo, E. e.a. (2019) ‘China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Incorporating public health measures toward global economic growth and shared prosperity’, Global Health Journal, 3, 2, 46-49.
Tandon, A. and Zhuang, J. (2007). Inclusiveness of Economic Growth in the People’s Republic of China: What Do Population Health Outcomes Tell Us?. ERD Policy Brief, 47. Philippines.
Tang K, Li Z, Li W, Chen L. (2017) ‘China’s Silk Road and global health’ Lancet, 390, 2965-2601.
NEW Tillman, H. and Ye, Y and Jian, Y. (2021). Health Silk Road 2020: A Bridge to the Future of Health for All. SSRN.
NEW Unmüßig, B. and Sitenko, A. (2021) ‘Divided we fail – Vaccine diplomacy and its implications’ Heinrich Böll Stiftung
NEW Vannarith, C. (2021) “Fighting COVID-19: China’s Soft Power Opportunities in Mainland Southeast Asia” ISEAS, 2021/66
Van den Broucke, S. (2020) Why health promotion matters to the COVID-19 pandemic, and vice versa, Health Promotion International, 35, 2, 181–186. and Policy, 4(1), 1–8.
NEW Verma, R (2020) ‘China’s ‘mask diplomacy’ to change the COVID-19 narrative in Europe’ Asia Europe Journal, 18, 205-209
Widmann. M. (2021) 17+1: Between Recovery and Vaccines. EIAS.
NEW Wigmore R. (2021) ‘5 Reasons to Worry About the ‘Chinese Vaccine Diplomacy’ Narrative’, The Diplomat, 11.3.2021
Wu X. (2019) ‘Boosting nursing cooperation for a healthy Silk Road’, International journal of nursing sciences, 6, 4, 2019, 349–351.
NEW Yanzhong Huang & Christopher J. Smith. (2010). China’s Response to Pandemics: From Inaction to OverreactioN. Eurasian Geography and Economics,
Zoubir, Y.H. (2020) China’s ‘Health Silk Road’ Diplomacy in the MENA, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Med Dialogue Series, 27, July 2020.