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eLibrary:  Belt and Road Initiative

Version 7.0 (Updated January 2022)

Richard T. Griffiths (Leiden University)


This is the latest version of an electronic library of resources on the BRI. It is intended to offer support to teachers and students studying the BRI as part of their undergraduate education and to act as a springboard to individual projects. It defines the BRI countries as those listed in the original scheme by the National Development and Reform Commission (i.e. everything from mainland Asia to Central and Eastern Europe but, excepting Egypt, excluding Africa). Any suggestions will be welcome.

The IIAS ‘New Silk Road’ project has over 700 researchers wanting to engage in collaborative teaching and research. The project help facilitate making new connections. To join, please write at the email address above.

Key Steps in China’s Policy

09/2013 Xi Jinping Speech at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan launching Silk Road. Summary by MFA of PRC. Also whole speech in Video

10/2013 Xi Jinping Speech to Indonesian parliament launching maritime silk road. Summary by Asean-China Centre. Also whole speech in Video

05/2014 Xi Jinping in Shanghai launching the ‘Asian dream’. Summary by MFA of PRC

03/2015 Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road

03/2017 Steadily Promote Cooperation among South China Sea Coastal States. Speech by Vice Foreign Minister Liu Zhenmin at the session on the South China Sea of the Bo’ao Forum for Asia Annual Meeting, 25.3.2017 Boao, Hainan

05/2017 Xi Jinping Speech at the Belt and Road Forum

06/2017 Vision of Maritime Cooperation in Building “Belt and Road” (English and Chinese)

01/2018 China’s Arctic Policy

12/2018 China’s third Policy Paper on the European Union Full Text, 18.12.2018.

4/2019 Full text of Report on progress, contributions and prospects of the Belt and Road Initiative, 22.4.2019.

4/2019 Xi Jinping’s Speech at Second Belt and Road Forum 26.4.2019

4/2019 List of Deliverables of the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation 27.4.2019

11/2019 Xi Jinping Speech to 2nd China International Import Expo, 5.11.2019


Data Bases

NEW Green Belt and Road Initiative Centre lists 74 databases with quantitative data relating to BRI (with indication of the coverage and dates)


Publication Updates

Asian Development Bank Working Paper Series offers many interesting country-specific monographs

Belt and Road News. An independent HK-based news outlet, daily stories

Belt and Road News Network. The Peoples Daily BRI news outlet

Official Chinese government Belt and Road Portal with daily updates of ‘top news’

The China Chronicles. Weekly in-depth reviews of China’s policies are archived here.

Clingendael (The Netherlands Institute of International relations) publishes a weekly newsletter of press commentaries. It also has an archive with previous editions.

Dezan Shira and Associates Silk Road Briefing produces a regular stream of interesting insights

ECNS (English China News Service) has archived its BRI stories since March 2018 at its portal Five Years On: Belt & Road Initiative

HKTDC Insights has a BRI Portal that features many think-tank reports, each with a summary, as well as contributions by the Council’s own staff.

RWR’s Belt and Road Monitor is a bi-weekly newsletter available by subscription

SASS (Shanghai Academy for Social Sciences) has a good Chinese language BRI portal with news and literature feeds

Regular Publications

CAREC (annual) Corridor Performance, Measurement and Monitoring

EBRD (annual) Transition Report

Economist Intelligence Unit (annual) China Going Global Index (needs registration)

International federation of Human Rights BRI Watch (every three months)

OECD (annual) Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India

UNESCAP (biannual) Review of Developments in Transport in Asia and the Pacific

World Economic Forum (annual) Global Competitiveness Report (each edition best looked up in Google)

NEW World Economic Forum The Belt and Road Cities’ Connectivity Index November 2021. First of a series?



NEW Louthan, T. (2022) A ‘Bright Path’ Forward or a Grim Dead End? The Political Impact of the Belt and Road Initiative in Kazakhstan, Foreign Policy Research Institute

NEW Venne, F. (2022) China in Hungary: Real Threat or False Alarm? Executive Summary, CEPA (January)


Anthony, I. e.a. (2021) China–Eu Connectivity in an Era of Geopolitical Competition, SIPRI Policy Paper 59, March 2021

Anthony, I. e.a. (2021) China–Eu Connectivity in an Era of Geopolitical Competition, SIPRI Policy Paper 59, March 2021

NEW Bansai, R. and Singh, S. (2021) China’s Digital Yuan: An Alternative to the Dollar-Dominated Financial System, Carnegie Endowment

Baxter, T. (2021) ‘How China sees the role of the Belt and Road Initiative in the (post) Covid era’ Panda Paw Dragon Claw Blog Post, March 2021

Blanchard, J-M.F. (2021) ‘Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Blues: Powering BRI Research Back on Track to Avoid Choppy Seas’, Journal of Chinese Political Science, 26, 235-255. January

NEW Brattenberg, E. and Feigenbaum, E.A. (2021) China’s Influence in Southeastern, Central, and Eastern Europe: Vulnerabilities and Resilience in Four Countries, Carnegie Endowment

Brautigam, D. and Rithmire, M. (2021) ‘The Chinese ‘Debt Trap’ Is a Myth’, The Atlantic, 6 February 2021

Casas-Klett, T. and Li, J. (2021) ‘Assessing the Belt and Road Initiative as a narrative: Implications for institutional change and international firm strategy’, Asia Pacific Journal of Management

Chen. D., e.a. (2021) ‘A review of the literature on the belt and road initiative with factors influencing the transport and logistics’, Maritime Policy and Management,

Chen, Y., e.a. (2021) ‘Make friends, not money: How Chinese enterprises select transport infrastructure investment locations along the Belt and Road’, Transport policy, 101, 119-132.

Chen, Z. and Li, X. (2021) ‘Economic impact of transportation infrastructure investment under the Belt and Road Initiative’, Asia Europe Journal, 19, 131–159

NEW Cheshmehzangi, A., Xi, L and Tan-Mullin, M. (2021) ‘Pioneering a Green Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) alignment between China and other members: mapping BRI’s sustainability plan’, Blue-Green Systems, 3, 1,

Cory, N (2021) Heading Off Track: The Impact of China’s Mercantilist Policies on Global HighSpeed Rail Innovation, ITIF, April 2021.

DiCarlo, J. (2021) Lost in Translation: Environmental and Social Safeguards for the Laos-China Railway, BU Global Development Policy Centre

Deng, Y. (2021) ‘How China Builds the Credibility of the Belt and Road Initiative’, Journal of Contemporary China, 30, 131, 734-750

Dunford, M. (2021) ‘China’s Belt and Road Initiative and its Implications for Global Development’, ACTA VIA SERICA, 6, 1, 91–118. June

Fang, K., e.a. (2021) ‘Mapping the environmental footprints of nations partnering the Belt and Road Initiative’, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 164.

Gelpern A. (e.a.) (2021) How China Lends: A Rare Look into 100 Debt Contracts with Foreign Governments, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Center for Global Development, and AidData at William & Mary. March, 2021.

Ghiretti, F. (2021) The Belt and Road Initiative in the Eastern and Southern EU, RSC PP 2021/07 Robert Schuman Centre, EUI

NEW Gong, L. (2021) The Belt and Road Initiative. Vehicle For China’s Humanitarian Action? RSIS Policy Report

NEW Grieger, G. (2021) Towards a joint Western alternative to the Belt and Road Initiative?, European parliament Briefing (December)

HCSS (2021) The Belt and Road Initiative Looks East Political Implications of China’s Economic Forays in the Caribbean and the South Pacific, The Hague. March

HKUST IEMS and UOB (2021) The Belt and Road Initiative in ASEAN, January 2021

Jiang, L (2021) ‘Demystifying the Belt and Road Initiative: China’s domestic and non-strategic policy?’, Asian Journal of Comparative Politics, 6, 4, 468-481.

Kenderdine, T. and Bucsky, P. (2021) ‘China’s Belt and Road Rail Freight Transport Corridors—The Economic Geography of Underdevelopment’, Die Erde, 152, 2.

NEW Kley, D. van der and Yau, N. (2021) How Central Asians Pushed Chinese Firms to Localize, Carnegie Endowment

Lai, H. (2021) ‘The Rationale and Effects of China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Reducing Vulnerabilities in Domestic Political Economy’, Journal of Contemporary China, 30, 128, 330-347.

Lew, J.L. and Roughead, G. (2021) China’s Belt and Road Implications for the United States, CFR, Independent Task Force Report No. 79

NEW Li, B. (2021) The Belt and Road Initiative: A New Landscape in Mapping the Changing Global Governance, EUPLANT Working Paper 2/2021

Li, J., e.a. (2021) ‘Natural gas trade network of countries and regions along the belt and road: Where to go in the future?’, Resources Policy, 71.

Li, J., e.a. (2021) ‘Foreign direct investment along the Belt and Road: A political economy perspective’, Journal of International Business Studies

Libman A., Vinokurov E. (2021) One Eurasia or Many? Regional Interconnections and Connectivity Projects on the Eurasian Continent. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University

Lindberg, J. and Biddulph, R. (2021) ‘China’s belt and road initiative: The need for livelihood-inclusive stories’, Geoforum, 121, 138-141. May

Liu. L. (2021) ‘Beyond the status quo and revisionism: an analysis of the role of China and the approaches of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) to the global order’, Asian Journal of Political Science, 29, 1, 88-109,

Liu. Z., Dunford, M. and Liu, W. (2021) ‘Coupling national geo-political economic strategies and the Belt and Road Initiative: The China-Belarus Great Stone Industrial Park’, Political Geography, 84

Louchlin, N. and Grimsditch, M. (2021) ‘How local political economy dynamics are shaping the Belt and Road Initiative’, Third World Quarterly, 42, 10. INSTITUTION

Lu, Y, Gu, W and Zeng, K. ‘Does the Belt and Road Initiative Promote Bilateral Political Relations?’, China & World Economy, 29, 5

Lukin, A. (2021) Road and Belt, Iron Silk Road and Russian-Chinese geopolitical cooperation and competition, Ordnungspolitische Diskurse, No. 2021-3

Luo, Z., e.a. (2021) ‘The distributive impacts of the Belt and Road Initiative’, Journal of Economic Surveys

Malik, A., Parks, B., Russell, B., Lin, J., Walsh, K., Solomon, K., Zhang, S., Elston, T., and S. Goodman. (2021). Banking on the Belt and Road: Insights from a new global dataset of 13,427 Chinese development projects. Williamsburg, VA: AidData at William & Mary. September

Martin, A (2021) China in the Broader Black Sea Region,  GLOBSEC Report, March 2021

MERICS (2021) Decoupling – Severed Ties and Patchwork Globalisation. Report by European Chamber of Commerce in China in partnership with MERICS

Miao, J.T. (2021) ‘Understanding the soft power of China’s Belt and Road Initiative through a discourse analysis in Europe’, Regional Studies, 8, 1

Murton, G. (2021) ‘Power of blank spaces: A critical cartography of China’s Belt and Road Initiative’, Asia Pacific Viewpoint

Nedopil Wang C. (2021) China’s Investments in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2020, International Institute for Green Finance, Beijing, January

Nedopil Wang C. (2021) China Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Investment Report H1 2021, Beijing, July

Oakes, T. (2021) ‘The Belt and Road as method: Geopolitics, technopolitics and power through an infrastructure lens’, Asia Pacific Viewpoint,

Oosterveld, W., Wilms, E. and Kertysova, K. (2021)  The Belt and Road Initiative Looks East Political Implications of China’s Economic Forays in the Caribbean and the South Pacific, HCSS, March 2021

NEW Ordabayev, A. (2021) ‘China’s Globalization and the Belt and Road Initiative’, Eurasian Research Journal, 3, 1, 81-83.

Pant H.V. and Saha, P. (eds.) (2021) Mapping the Belt and Road Initiative. Reach, Implications, Consequences. ORF February

NEW Pantucci, R. (2021) ‘The Many Faces of China’s Belt and Road Initiative’, Current History, 120, 28-34.

Papatolios, N. (2021) ‘China-Europe Express celebrates ten year anniversary’, Rail Freight, 19 March

NEW Pyzhikov, N. and Gushchin, E. (2021) ‘Belt and Road Initiative: Interim Results and Challenges During Pandemic’,  Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 65, 3.

Randrianarisoa, L.M., e.a. (2021) ‘How ‘Belt’ and ‘Road’ are related economically: modelling and policy implications’, Maritime Policy & Management, 48, 3, 432-460

Razzaq, A., An, H. and Delpatchitra, S. (2021) ‘Does technology gap increase FDI spillovers on productivity growth? Evidence from Chinese outward FDI in Belt and Road host countries’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 172,

REFINITIV (2021) BRI Connect: An Initiative In Numbers. Fighting COVID-19 with infrastructure

Richardson, P.B. (2021) ‘Geopolitical encounters and entanglements along the belt and road initiative’, Geography Compas

Rosendal, T. (2021) China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Pragmatism over Morals? Intentaional Relations, 18.10.2021

Saeed, N., e.a. (2021) ‘Reconfiguring maritime networks due to the Belt and Road Initiative: impact on bilateral trade flows’, Maritime Economics & Logistics, 23, 381–400

NEW Sano, J. (2021) ‘The Reality of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) from a Numerical Perspective. Promote BRI for the Purpose of Increasing “pro-China” Countries’, Pacific Business and Industries, 21, 79.

NEW Schneider, F. (ed.) (2021) Global Perspectives on China’s Belt and Road Initiative.

Asserting Agency through Regional Connectivity, Amsterdam UP

NEW Schulhof, V., Van Vuren, D. and Kirchherr (2021) ‘The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): What Will it Look Like in the Future?’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change (November)

NEW Taliger, H. (2021) Belt and Road Initiative in Central Asia, e ITUC and the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES)

Ullah, A., e.a. (2021) ‘Nexus of regional integration, socioeconomic determinants and sustainable development in belt and road initiative countries’, PLOS One

Uygun, Y. and  Ahsan, J. (2021) ‘Analyzing the Railway Network of the Belt and Road Initiative’, Cogent Business & Management, 8, 1

Ven J, v.d. (2021) ‘Development Lending is Down, But the BRI Lives to Fight Another DayChina Brief, 21, 4

Wang, C. e.a. (2021) ‘Factors affecting changes of greenhouse gas emissions in Belt and Road countries’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 147

NEW Wang, H. e.a. (2021) ‘Confucius Institute, Belt and Road Initiative, and Internationalization’, International Review of Economics and Finance, 71, 237-256.

Wang, H. (2021) ‘The Belt and Road Initiative Agreements: Characteristics, Rationale, and Challenges’ World Trade Review, 20, 3, 282-305.

Wang, J., e.a. (2021) ‘The internationalization of Chinese multinational enterprises under the Belt-and-Road Initiative’, Strategic Change, 30, 509-515.

Wang, J., e.a. (2021) ‘Research on the carbon emission effect of the seven regions along the Belt and Road—based on the spillover and feedback effects model’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 319

Wang, L., e.a. (2021) ‘Trade-related water scarcity risk under the Belt and Road Initiative‘, Science of the Total Environment, 801.

Wang, X., e.a. (2021) ‘Transport research under Belt and Road Initiative: current trends and future research agenda’, Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, 17, 4, 357-379

Winter, T. (2021) ‘Geocultural power: China’s Belt and Road Initiative’, Geopolitics, 26, 5, 1376 -1399

Wolff, S. (2021) China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Implications for the OSCE, OSCE Network,

Yoshino, N., Huang, B., Azhgaliyeva, D and Abbas, Q (eds) (2021) Developing Infrastructure in Central Asia. Impacts and Financing Mechanisms, ADBI, March 2021

NEW Zhai, T. (2021) ‘Environmental Challenges, Opportunities, and Policy Implications to Materialize China’s Green Belt and Road Initiative’, Sustainability, 13

Zhao, L., e.a. (2021) ‘Cooperation risk of oil and gas resources between China and the countries along the Belt and Road’, Energy, 227.

Zhou, Y., e.a. (2021) ‘Multimodal transportation network centrality analysis for Belt and Road Initiative’, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 149.



Abdoubaetova, A. (ed) (2020) China’s Belt and Road Initiative in Central Asia: Ambitions, Risks, and Realities, OCSE, Bishkek, June, 2020

Asia Policy Book Review Roundtable on Daniel S. Markey’s China’s Western Horizon: Beijing and the New Geopolitics of Eurasia, Asia Policy, 15, 3, 2020, 133-160. July 2020

Awan, N. and Hussain, Z. (2020) Conflicting Material Imaginaries, New Silk Roads, 30.1-2020 (report on Gwadar)

Boisseau du Rocher, S. (2020) The Belt and Road: China’s “Community of Destiny” for Southeast Asia?, IFRI, Asie Visions, 113, June 2020

Boo, C.B., David, M. and Simpfendorfer, (2020) ‘How will COVID-19 affect China’s Belt and Road Initiative?’, WEF, 4.5.2020

NEW Buckley, P.J. (2020) ‘China’s Belt and Road Initiative and the COVID-19 crisisJournal of International Business Policy, 3, 2020, 311-314.

Cao, M and Alon, I. (2020) ‘Intellectual Structure of the Belt and Road Initiative Research: A Scientometric Analysis and Suggestions for a Future Research Agenda’, Sustainability, 12, 2020. 25.8.2020

Conley, H.A., Hillman, J.E., Ruy, D. and McCalpin, M. (2020) China’s “Hub-and-Spoke” Strategy in the Balkans CSIS Report,

Conley, H.A., Hillman, J.E., Ruy, D. and McCalpin, M. (2020) Becoming a Chinese Client State, The Case of Serbia, CSIS Report,

Contessi, N.P. (2020) ‘In the Shadow of the Belt and Road. Eurasian Corridors on the North—South Axis’, Reconnecting Asia, Analysis, 3.3 2020.

De Maio, G. (2020) Playing with fire: Italy, China, and Europe, Brookings,

Dezenski, E.K. (2020) Below the Belt and Road Corruption and Illicit Dealings in China’s Global Infrastructure, Foundation for the Defence of Democracies.

European Chamber of Commerce in China (2020) The Road Less Travelled. European involvement in China’s Belt and Road Initiative, Beijing, February. NOTE. This requires email registration for free download

European Court of Auditors (2020) The EU’s response to China’s state-driven investment strategy, Review 03. 11.9.2020.

Feng, F. e.a. (2020) ‘China Railway Express Subsidy Model Based on Game Theory under “the Belt and Road” Initiative’, Sustainability, 12, 5, 2020.

Ghiasy, R. and Krishnamurthy, R. (2020) China’s Digital Silk Road Strategic Implications for the EU and India, LIAS,

Godehardt, N. and Postel-Vinay, K (2020) Connectivity and Geopolitics: Beware the “New Wine in Old Bottles” Approach, SWP Research Paper.

Gordon, D.F., Tong, H. and Anderson, T. (2020) Beyond the Myths – Towards a Realistic Assessment of China’s Belt and Road Initiative: The Development-Finance Dimension, IISS Report, March 2020

Hamieri, S. (2020) Debunking the myth of China’s “debt-trap diplomacy”, The Interpreter (Lowy Institute) 9.9.2020.

Hammer, A. and Litwin, T. (2020) How Big Is China’s Bri-Related OFDI Spending & Where Is It Going?, USITC Briefings on Trade, July 2020

Hammer, A. and Uppuluri, U. (2020) What’s Unique About China’s Trade with the United States? A Multi-Dimensional Perspective Using China’s Customs Data, USITC Economics Working Paper, 2020-07-C, July 2020 (good comment on statistics)

Haralambides, H. and Marks, O. (2020) The Belt and Road Initiative: Impacts on Global Maritime Trade Flows, ITF Discussion Paper,

Hess, M. (2020) Central Asian Gas Exports to China: Beijing’s Latest Bargaining Chip?’, Foreign Policy Research Institute, June 2020

Hillman, J.E. (2020) China and Russia: Economic Unequals’ CSIS, Reconnecting Asia, July 2020

Huotari, M., Weidenfeld, J. and Arcesati, R (2020) Managing Economic Cooperation and Competition with China. Towards A More Integrated European Trade Policy Approach, MERICS, March 2020

Jiang, Y. (2020) ‘The Belt and Road Initiative: A Domestically-Motivated Program Fueling Global Competition’, China Brief, 20, 10. May 2020.

Jones, L. and  and Hameiri, S (2020) Debunking the Myth of ‘Debt-trap Diplomacy’ How Recipient Countries Shape China’s Belt and Road Initiative, Chatham House Research Paper, 19.8.2020

Kavalski, E. and Sum, L.D. ‘How China lost central and eastern Europe’, The Conversation, 30.7.2020

Lee, J (2020) China’s Economic Slowdown: Part Two Ambition and Overreach: Countering One Belt One Road and Beijing’s Plans to Dominate Global Innovation, Hudson Institute, February 2020

Lelyveld, M. (2020) ‘China’s Investment in Belt and Road Initiative Cools – Analysis’ Eurasia Review, 21.1.2020

PeaceNexus, (2020) Development of Transport Corridors in Central Asia and effect of the “Belt And Road” Initiative, January 2020

Petkova, M. and v.d. Putten F-P. (2020) Building the ‘Belt and Road’ Policy Brief in Europe?, Clingendael China Centre Policy Brief, April 2020.

Pomfret, R. (2020) The Eurasian Landbridge: Implications of linking East Asia and Europe by rail, AESCON Working Paper, 2020-04

NEW Policy Planning Staff of the secretary of State (2020) The Elements of the China Challenge

Putten, F.P.van der and Petkova, M. (2020) Chinese Construction Companies and Transport Infrastructure in the European Union, Clingendael, 28.4.2020

REFINITIV (2020) BRI Connect: An Initiative in Numbers. Understanding the Risks and Rewards. February 2020

REFINITIV (2020) BRI Connect: An Initiative in Numbers. The impact of pandemics on infrastructure projects (on request)

Roctus, J. (2020) Remolding China’s ‘Empty’ Belt and Road Initiative – An Opportunity for the EU, Egmont Institute, Security Policy Briefs, June 2020.

Russel, D.R. and Berger, B. (2020) Weaponizing the Belt and Road Initiative, Asia Society Policy Institute Report, September 2020.

Sahakyan, M.D. (2020) ‘Rebuilding Interconnections: Russia, India and the International North-South Transport Corridor’, AsiaGlobal Online, 17.9.2020

NEW Sarsenbayev, M., and Véron, N. (2020) ‘European versus American Perspectives on the Belt and Road Initiative’, China & World Economy, 28, 2, 84–112.

Simon M.A. (2020) Assyemtrical Flows, New Silk Roads, 7.2.2020 (Report on Khorgos)

Smotrytska, M. (2020) ‘EU Logistics In The BRI Maps: Synergy of BRI and TEN-TModern Diplomacy, 10.9. 2020.

NEW Tybring-Gjedde, C. (2020) China’s Belt and Road Initiative: A Strategic And Economic Assessment. NATO Economic and Security Committee

UIC (2020) Eurasian Rail Corridors. Development Potential, Paris, February 2020

White, M. (2020) ‘Measuring the Unknown: Belt & Road Inititaive’, Belt and Road News 29.4.2020


Alonso-Trabanco, J.M. (2019) ‘Geopolitics and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank’ Geopolitical Monitor, 4.7.2019

Baniya,S., Rocha, G.N.P and Ruta,M. (2019) Trade Effects of the New Silk Road: A Gravity Analysis, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 8694.

The Belt and Road Initiative. Progress, Contributions and Prospects 2019. Office of the Leading Group for Promoting the Belt and Road Initiative, April 2019

Bertelsmann Stiftung (2019) Beyond Investment Screening. Expanding Europe’s toolbox to address economic risks from Chinese state capitalism

Bordachev, T. et al (2019), Eurasian Economic Integration: Between Absolute and Relative Benefits, Valdai Club, 14.5.2019

Boustany, C.W. and Friedberg, A.L. (2019) Partial Disengagement: A New U.S. Strategy for Economic Competition with China, NBR Special Report, 82, 4.11.2019

China’s Digital Silk Road, Transcript of Presentation CSIS, Washington, 5.2.2019.

China’s pursuit of A New World Media Order (2019) Reporters without Borders, 22.3.2019

China Development Bank (2019)  Harmonizing Investment and Financing Standards towards Sustainable Development along the Belt and Road Economic Development along the Belt and Road , November 2019

CGTN ‘New global survey shows China’s national image steadily improving’, 18.10.2019. Review of China National Image Global Survey 2018

CIOB (2019) Silk Road to Silicon Road, How the Belt and Road Initiative Will Transform the Global Economy, London, 3.6.2019

Custer, S. et al. (2019) Silk Road Diplomacy: Deconstructing Beijing’s toolkit to influence South and Central Asia, Williamsburg, VA. AidData at William & Mary. 10.12.2019

Deloitte (2019) BRI update 2019–recalibration and new opportunities, 15.4.2019

Deutsche Bank (2019) China’s Belt and Road Initiative A guide to market participation, November 2019

Devonshire-Ellis, C (2019) ‘Free Trade Zones on China’s Belt & Road Initiative: The Eurasian Land BridgeSilk Road Briefing, 19.9.2019

Eder, T. ‘Belt, Road and Sword’, Berlin Policy Journal, 3.1.2019

Ekman, A. et al. (2019) China’s Belt & Road and the World: Competing Forms of Globalization, Études de l’Ifri

Emerging Markets Forum (2019) China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Potential Transformation of Central Asia and the South Caucasus, January 2019 (later expanded into book with same title)

Freeman, C.P. and Ōba, M.(2019) Bridging the Belt and Road Divide, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 10.10.2019.

Freyman, E. (2019) ‘‘One Belt One Road’ Is Just a Marketing Campaign’, The Atlantic, 17.8.2019

Gharleghi, B. (2019) The Eurasia Integration Index: A concept note, DOC Research Institute, May 2019

Griffiths, R.T., (2019) The New Silk Road. Challenge and Response, Preface and Introduction

Hannah, H.I. (2019) ‘The Great Game Moves to Sea: Tripolar Competition in the Indian Ocean RegionWar on the Rocks, 1.4.2019.

Herrero, A.G.  (2019) Europe’s value chain increasingly dependent on china at the expense of its own regional integration. Natixis beyond Banking, 31.10.2019

Holzner,M (2019) One Trillion Euros for Europe How to finance a European Silk Road with the help of a European Silk Road Trust, backed by a European Sovereign Wealth Fund and other financing instruments, WIIW, Vienna, Policy Notes and Reports, 35, November 2019.

‘How China is looking beyond borders’, South China Morning Post, 26.4.2019

Horn, S., Reinhart, C and Trebesch, C (2019) China’s Overseas Lending, Kiel Working Paper 2132, 20.6.2019

Hughes, A.C. ‘Understanding and minimizing environmental impacts of the Belt and Road Initiative’, Conversation Biology, March 2019

Islam, M. (2019) The Year of the Pig. Can  China’s Belt and Road Initiative save the World from a mud fight?, Euler Hermes Economic Research, 30.1.2019.

Ives, M. (2019) ‘China’s Belt and Road Initiative Threatens to Pave the Planet’, Sierra, 16.12.2019 (When BRI meets Nature)

Johanson, D., Li, J. and Wu T. (eds.) (2019) New Perspectives on China’s Relations with the World, Bristol, 26.3.3019

Jun, M and Zadek, S (2019) Decarbonizing the Belt and Road. A GREEN FINANCE ROADMAP, September 2019

Kliman, D., Doshi, R., Lee, K. and Cooper, Z. (2019) Grading China’s Belt and Road, CNAS (Center for a New American Security)

Kohli, H.S. and Zucker, L. (2019) An Economic Perspective on the BRI: Five Years after Its Launch, Emerging Markets Forum, Background paper, January 2019

Kratz, A. e.a. (2019) ‘New Data on the “Debt Trap”Question’ Rhodium Group Research Note, 29.4.2019

Lall,S.V,  Lebrand, M.S.M  (2019) Who Wins, Who Loses ? Understanding the Spatially Differentiated Effects of the Belt and Road Initiative, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 8806, 8.4.2019

Lawrence, M, Bullock, R. and Liu, Z.(2019) China’s High-Speed Rail Development, World Bank Group, July 2019

Lee, J. (2019) China’s Economic Slowdown:  Root Causes, Beijing’s Response  and Strategic Implications  for the US and Allies, Hudson Institute, December 2019

Lemanhieu, H. (2019) ‘Five big takeaways from the 2019 Asia Power Index’ The Interpreter, 20.5.2019. There is a link to the Index at the end of the article.

Liu, X., Blackburn T.M., Song, T., Li, X., Huang, C. and Li, Y. (2019) ‘Risks of Biological Invasion on the Belt and Road’, Current Biology, 29, 3, 24.1.2019 (summary only). Click here for a newspaper article based on the findings.

Losos, E., Pfaff, A., Olander, L., Mason, S. and Morgan, S. (2019) Reducing Environmental Risks from Belt and Road Initiative Investments in Transportation Infrastructure, World Bank Policy research Working Paper, 8718, January 2019

Lukin, A. (2019) Russia’s “Turn to Asia” Has Yet to Bring Prosperity to the Far East, Valdai Discussion Club, Expert Opinion, 4.9.2019

Manuel, R. (2019) ‘Twists in the Belt and Road’. China Leadership Monitor, 1.9.2019.

March JLT (2019) The Belt and Road Initiative: Assessing Shifting Attitudes, MARSH JLT Insights, September 2019

Masood, E. ‘How China is redrawing the map of world science’ Nature, 1.5.2019

Mauk, B. (2019) ‘Can China turn the Middle of Nowhere into the Center of the World Economy?’ New York Times Magazine, 30.1.2019

McKinsey (2019) Asia’s Future is Now,

Obe, M and Kishmoto, K (2019) ‘Why China is determined to connect Southeast Asia by rail’ Nikkei Asian Review, 9.1.2019.

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